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美國痼疾難除的槍支暴力嚴重踐踏人權(4)(中英對照)

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Part 3 The Serious Social Problems Caused by the Proliferation of Guns

三、槍支泛濫帶來嚴重社會問題
The proliferation of guns and gun violence in the United States has serious consequences. In addition to causing a large number of casualties, it has also bred more violence and crimes, which has greatly reduced the sense of security in US society.
美國槍支泛濫和槍支暴力產生嚴重后果。除了造成大量人員傷亡外,還催生更多的暴力和犯罪,使美國社會安全感大大降低。
1. The proliferation of guns has led to a large number of murders in the United States. Guns are closely linked to murders. The US people own a large number of private guns. The easy access to guns leads to a high possibility of using guns in conflicts. With the intervention of guns, small quarrels may escalate into murders, and criminal acts such as robbery and theft may turn into murder cases if the criminals carry guns. When drugs and guns are linked together, more violent crime can be bred. Organized crimes of the gangs will cause greater harm when employing guns. Given the widespread private gun ownership in US society, it is unavoidable that a large number of guns will be sold illegally and possessed without registration, which increases the difficulty in gun control. All of this directly enhances the murder rate in the United States. According to the Harvard Injury Control Research Center's study of multinational conditions, there is a positive correlation between privately owned guns and murders. In the 1990s, an average of 2 million violent criminal cases and 24,000 murders occurred in the United States per year, 70 percent of which were related to guns. According to a report issued by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, between 2005 and 2012, about 60 percent of intentional murders in the United States were carried out through the use of guns. The close link between guns and violent crimes is also proved by a crime data analysis released in the United States in 2017. According to the study, violent crimes in some states have increased by 10 to 15 percent in 10 years after relaxing restrictions on the issuance of Concealed Pistol Licenses.
第一,槍支泛濫導致美國謀殺案大量發生。槍支同謀殺聯系密切。由于大量槍支散布在美國民間,任何人都比較容易獲得,且容易掌握使用技能,所以在沖突中使用槍支的可能性很大。有了槍支介入,小的爭吵會升級為兇殺,搶劫、偷盜等犯罪行為如果持槍進行,就有可能演變為謀殺案件。毒品和槍支聯系到一起,就可能催生更多的暴力犯罪。黑社會性質的有組織犯罪,會因為槍支的緣故造成更大危害。在社會普遍擁槍的情況下,非法買賣槍支、未經登記而持有槍支的現象必定大量發生,"黑槍"必定更加難以控制。這一切都直接推高了美國的謀殺率。根據哈佛傷害控制研究中心對于多國情況的研究,私人持有槍支越多,謀殺案件發生的數量就越多,兩者之間存在正相關關系。20世紀90年代,美國每年平均發生200萬件暴力刑事犯罪和2.4萬件謀殺案件。這些謀殺案件中的70%與槍支有關。根據聯合國毒品與犯罪辦公室發布的報告,2005至2012年,美國故意謀殺案中大約有60%都是通過使用槍支來實施的。槍支同暴力犯罪的密切聯系也得到美國2017年發布的一項犯罪數據分析的支持。根據這項研究,一些州在放寬對隱匿持槍證的發放限制后,10年內當地暴力犯罪增加了10%至15%。
2. The proliferation of guns has led to the constant occurrence of school shootings. Frequent school shootings are a peculiar phenomenon and the consequence of the proliferation of guns in the United States. No country with strict gun control suffers as many campus shootings as the United States. As campuses are densely populated public places, it is easy to cause heavy causalities in school shootings. A large collection of juveniles on campus cannot defend themselves, respond to unexpected situations, and are vulnerable in shooting incidents. The horrific experience of shooting incidents can cause long-term harm to many children, leading to problems such as poorer academic performance, social disabilities, depression, anxiety, lack of sleep, and drug abuse. The families of the students are affected as well. Therefore, the social impact of school shootings is extensive. In 2018, there were 25 campus shootings in the United States, affecting 25,332 students, 33 of whom were killed and 61 were injured. More than 4 million children have experienced a campus blockade in the 2017-2018 school year, and many have suffered physical and psychological trauma. Due to the frequent occurrence of school shootings, a peculiar phenomenon that teachers and students carry guns in school has emerged in the United States. Some states have even enacted laws requiring that teachers be equipped with guns.
第二,槍支泛濫導致校園槍擊案不斷發生。頻繁發生的校園槍擊案是美國特有現象,是美國槍支泛濫的結果。世界上其他嚴格控槍的國家,沒有一個國家發生像美國那樣多的校園槍擊案。校園屬人口密集的公共場所,一旦發生槍擊案件,很容易造成較大傷亡。校園聚集了大量未成年人,他們缺乏自我防衛和應對意外情況的能力,在槍擊事件中易受傷害。槍擊事件的恐怖經歷會給很多兒童造成長期傷害,導致學習成績下降、社交障礙、抑郁、焦慮、睡眠不足、藥物濫用等問題。每個學生后面都是一個家庭。校園槍擊案的社會影響十分廣泛。2018年美國共發生25起校園槍擊事件,有25332名學生受到影響,其中33人喪生、61人受傷。超過400萬少年兒童在2017至2018學年經歷了校園封鎖,很多人受到身心創傷。由于校園槍擊案頻繁發生,美國出現了教師持槍上課、學生挎槍上學的奇特景觀。美國有的州甚至頒布法律,規定教師必須配槍。
3. Gun violence has seriously undermined the US people's sense of security. One argument for supporting individual gun ownership is that guns can protect personal safety. But the paradox is that if everyone holds a gun, he or she will become more insecure. Due to the massive shooting incidents and widespread gun violence, the United States has become an extremely insecure country. Its people live in fear and are forced to rely on guns to protect themselves. The laws reflect the fear of the US people. Many state laws allow citizens to shoot in the event of a threat, even if they can escape the threat without the use of weapons. This adds to the sense of insecurity in society. The United States has fallen into a vicious circle. On the one hand, the increasing proliferation of guns in the United States has brought more security risks and increased the number of vicious criminal offenses. On the other hand, every time a shooting incident occurs, more US people will buy guns out of safety concerns and the need for self-defense.
第三,槍支暴力嚴重破壞美國民眾的安全感。支持個人持槍權的一個論據是槍支能保護個人安全。但吊詭的是,如果人人持有槍支,每個人都會變得更不安全。由于大量發生的槍擊案件,由于普遍存在的槍支暴力,美國成為一個極度缺乏安全的國家,民眾深懷恐懼。他們必須依靠槍支保護自己。法律反映了美國民眾的恐懼心理。許多州的法律允許公民在受到威脅的情況下開槍,即使在他們不用武力能夠逃離威脅的情況下也可以開槍。這又加重了整個社會的不安全感。美國陷入了一種惡性循環。一方面,槍支在美國日趨泛濫,帶來更多的安全隱患,惡性刑事犯罪日趨增多。另一方面,每當發生槍擊事件后,出于對自身安全的擔心和自我防衛的需要,更多的美國民眾會去購買槍支。
The US people are living with a strong sense of insecurity. According to a Gallup poll in 2015, 37 percent of interviewees said they did not dare to walk one kilometer away from their household at night, and above 40 percent of the low-income people with annual family incomes below 30,000 US dollars dared not to walk anywhere at night. According to a 2017 survey by the American Journal of Public Health, 9 million American citizens carry a loaded pistol outdoors at least once a month, and 3 million of them even carry guns every day. A February 2016 study by the Journal of the American Medical Association found that Americans were 10 times more likely to be shot than those in other developed countries.
美國民眾的不安全感十分嚴重。根據2015年的一項蓋洛普調查,37%的人表示不敢在離家一公里的范圍內走夜路,家庭年收入在三萬美元以下的低收入者的不安全感更加強烈,不敢走夜路的比例在40%以上。根據《美國公共衛生雜志》2017年的一項調查報告,有900萬美國民眾每月至少一次攜帶裝彈手槍外出,其中的300萬人甚至每天外出都攜槍。《美國醫學雜志》2016年2月的一項研究發現,美國人被槍殺的幾率是其他發達國家的10倍。
Rampant gun violence is an epitome of serious human rights problems and the consequence of extremely overwhelming individualism in the United States, reflecting its inherent institutional problem. Many people in the United States mistakenly believe that they can protect themselves only with guns. They have forgotten that personal security is inseparable from protection by the state. On the issue of gun control, the United States has driven into a dead end. The demands of US society simply cannot change the legislation and decision-making of the gun issue. On the issue of gun control, we cannot see the effectiveness of US democracy, as it has been undermined by political polarization. Both parties have done nothing and failed to respond to the demands of the reality of US society. Every moment, US society is in danger of suffering from gun violence, and human rights are being trampled on.
槍支暴力踐踏人權是美國存在嚴重人權問題的縮影,也是美國個人主義極度膨脹的結果,反映了美國固有的制度問題。美國很多人錯誤地認為,只有擁有槍支才能保護自己。他們忘記了,個人安全離不開國家的保護。在控槍問題上,美國已經走入死胡同。美國社會的呼聲根本改變不了持槍問題的立法和決策。在控槍問題上,我們看不到"兩黨極化"背景下美國民主的成效,因為兩黨都無所作為,回應不了美國社會現實提出的訴求。每時每刻,美國社會都面臨發生槍支暴力案件的危險,都在敲響踐踏人權的警鐘。

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