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美國痼疾難除的槍支暴力嚴重踐踏人權(3)(中英對照)

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3. Interest groups are the biggest resistance to gun control efforts in the United States. In addition to the deep-rooted gun culture in US society, interest groups are another important factor causing difficulties in achieving proper gun control in the United States. The legal factor is just a reason on the surface, the real reason is the influence of interest groups. The production, sales, and use of guns in the United States have formed a huge industrial chain that generates tremendous interests. According to a National Broadcasting Company (NBC) report in 2015, the gun and ammunition manufacturing industry in the United States earned a collective annual revenue of approximately $13.5 billion; guns and ammunition stores had an average annual income of $3.1 billion, and their actual profits reached $478.4 million. Gun production and sales industries paid $2 billion in taxes, and provided 263,000 full-time jobs, with 100,000 retailers officially registered to sell weapons. The total economic impact of the US gun and ammunition industry is estimated to be valued at $42.9 billion. The associations that oppose gun control and represent the interests of the gun industry and the people who carry guns wield great influence on the issue of gun control. In the United States, the interest groups that oppose gun control include 12 national organizations, such as the National Rifle Association of America (NRA), Gun Owners of America (GOA), National Shooting Sports Foundation (NSSF), and the National Association for Gun Rights, etc. These interest groups have made substantial political donations to US presidential elections and congressional elections. They donated $113 million through the Political Action Committee (PAC) from 2010 to 2018 alone. Founded in 1871, the National Rifle Association of America, the leading organization that opposes gun control in the United States, has 5 million members, including powerful gun manufacturers and distributors. To fulfill its mission to oppose gun control, the association conducts specific activities to advocate gun ownership, oppose gun control, lobby, and make political donations. The NRA is the most influential lobbying organization in the United States, with annual operating expenses of $250 million and more expenses during election years. According to relevant statistics, the NRA donated $54.4 million for political campaign funds during the 2016 presidential election, among which $30 million was donated to Republican candidates. According to CNN, at present, 307 of the 535 Senators and Representatives of Congress have either obtained campaign funds directly from the association and its affiliates, or have benefited from the association's advertising campaigns. The NRA has made numerous political donations to congressmen, among which 20 large donations were given to Republican congressmen. In recent years, the US interest groups that oppose gun control, represented by the NRA, have achieved great success. They have succeeded in killing off almost all gun control bills and further relaxing gun control in the United States.

第三,利益集團是美國控槍的最大阻力。美國控槍難有成效,除了美國社會根深蒂固的持槍文化這個因素以外,還有利益集團因素。如果說法律因素是"表"的話,利益集團因素則是美國控槍難問題的"里",是主要原因。美國的槍支制造、買賣和使用已形成龐大產業鏈,涉及龐大利益。根據美國全國廣播公司2015年報道,美國的槍支和彈藥制造業年收益達135億美元,槍支和彈藥商店平均年收益31億美元,實際盈利達到4億7840萬美元,槍支制造和銷售行業繳稅總額達到20億美元,雇傭26.3萬全職員工,僅正式登記的武器銷售點就有10萬個之多。美國槍支和彈藥行業的總體經濟影響估計達429億美元。反對槍支管控的協會組織是槍支行業和持槍者利益的代表,在控槍議題上擁有強大影響力。在美國,反對控槍的利益集團有全國步槍協會、全國持槍者協會、全國射擊運動協會、全國槍支權利協會等12個組織。這些利益集團為美國總統選舉和國會選舉提供大量政治捐款,僅2010年至2018年期間就通過政治行動委員會捐款1.13億美元。全國步槍協會是美國主要的反控槍組織,創立于1871年,有500萬會員,其中包括實力強大的槍支生產商和經銷商。該組織的宗旨就是反對槍支管制,具體的活動方式包括開展擁槍宣傳、組織反控槍行動、進行院外游說和政治捐助等。全國步槍協會是美國最有影響力的院外游說組織,每年運營經費高達2.5億美元,競選年份經費更多。根據有關統計數據,全國步槍協會在2016年總統選舉中捐出政治競選資金5440萬美元,其中3000萬美元捐給了共和黨候選人。根據美國有線電視新聞網統計,目前美國國會兩院的535名成員中,有307人要么直接從協會及其附屬機構處獲得過競選資金,要么就是從協會的廣告活動中受益。全國步槍協會向國會議員捐出政治獻金,數額較大的20筆都流向共和黨籍議員。近年來,以全國步槍協會為代表的美國反槍支管制利益集團取得了巨大成功,幾乎封殺了所有控槍法案,使美國槍支管制更加寬松。
4. The proliferation of guns is closely related to the excessive use of guns by the US police. The US police often use guns excessively and resort to violence in performing their duty. Their excessive use of guns has caused a large number of casualties when dealing with targets suspected of carrying weapons. In 2017, the US police shot and killed 987 people, many of whom were innocent. The Washington Post reported in 2016 that as of July 8, at least 124 of the 509 people shot by US police in half a year were mentally ill. The policemen abuse their authority to shoot civilians but are rarely investigated for criminal responsibility. Every year, about 1,000 civilians are shot by the police and at least 400 of them die. In contrast, from 2005 to 2016, only 77 policemen were accused of manslaughter or murder, averaging only 7.7 people per year, and the vast majority of them were exempt from prosecution. In the first five months of 2015, the number of deaths caused by US policemen by using guns reached 385, an average of more than two people per day. In sharp contrast, only three policemen were accused during this period, less than 1 percent of the total. This situation has caused great social repercussions. In 2015, the Chicago police officer who fatally shot the 17-year-old African-American boy McDonald was not prosecuted for a long time, which resulted in a protest by the public. This police officer had suffered 20 complaints before, but he had never been investigated.
第四,槍支泛濫同美國警察過度使用槍支現象有相當關系。美國警方在執法過程中濫用槍支現象非常嚴重。警察常常暴力執法,在執法過程中往往以被執法對象疑似持有槍支等武器為由過度使用槍械,造成大量人員傷亡。2017年,美國警察槍殺987人。在被警察槍殺的人中,有很多是無辜者。《華盛頓郵報》報道,截至2016年7月8日,在半年多一點時間內被美國警方槍殺的509人中,至少有124人是精神疾病患者。警察濫用職權槍殺平民卻極少被追究刑事責任,每年有約1000名平民被警察射殺,至少致死400人,但在2005年至2016年的10多年里,只有77名警察因此而被指控犯有過失殺人罪或謀殺罪,平均每年僅為7.7人,并且絕大多數都被免予起訴。2015年前5個月,美國警察槍擊致死人數達385人,平均每天致死超過2人。而與此形成強烈反差的是,這期間被起訴的警察只有3人,還不到總數的1%。這種情況引起很大社會反響。2015年,射殺17歲非洲裔男孩麥克唐納的芝加哥警察,遲遲未被起訴,公眾為此舉行抗議游行。該警察之前曾遭20項投訴,居然未受到任何追究。
Due to the above-mentioned fundamental institutional reasons, the gun issue in the United States has no hope to be settled, and the US government is in a dilemma regarding gun control, which fully reflects the predicament of its so-called liberal democracy. The US political system fails to resolve the contradiction between individual liberty and public security and cannot maintain a balance between the two. The United States government is unable to correct the deteriorating situation in which the individual freedom to carry weapons causes heavy casualties and threatens public safety. "US Democracy" can't find a way to solve the gun issue because the foundation of US democracy is general elections, which are inseparable from money. Gun-related interest groups gain political influence through monetary donations and they prevent the government from controlling guns. At the same time, candidates, with the purpose of winning more votes, often cater to voters who advocate the right to hold guns. In addition, US partisan politics has penetrated into the federal Supreme Court, which should be an independent national judicial body, causing divergence within the federal Supreme Court on gun control issues. The gun control issue reflects the fundamental dilemma of the US political system and declares that the US-style liberal democracy has encountered a dead end.
由于上述根本性的制度原因,美國槍支問題看不到解決的前景。美國深陷槍支泥淖,在槍支管制方面進退兩難,充分反映了其所謂的自由民主制度遭遇困境。美國政治制度不能解決個人自由與公共安全的矛盾,無法維持兩者之間的平衡。當天平向個人持槍自由過度傾斜、造成大量人員傷亡、威脅公共安全時,美國政府無力糾正,任由事態持續惡化。"美式民主"找不到解決槍支問題的出路,因為美國民主的根基是競選,而競選離不開金錢。槍支利益集團通過金錢捐贈獲得政治影響力,阻止政府控槍。同時,候選人為了爭取擁護持槍權的選民的選票,常常迎合他們。另外,美國黨派政治已經滲透到號稱獨立的國家司法機構——聯邦最高法院,使聯邦最高法院面對槍支管制問題時陷于分裂。槍支管制問題折射出美國政治制度的根本困境,宣告美國自由民主走進死胡同。

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